Secular Education in the West

Abstract

Education in Western countries (Europe, USA) often characterized as advanced education, because it is in the cycle an industrialized country. However, to understand the reality of education in there, some side should be highlighted. The first aspect is the issue of access vs. quality, which is directly related to the role of the state in therein. In many countries, access to equity efforts contradiction with the quality of education is often obtained. The second aspect is about the charge of education, both in side of life skills, including science and technology, and outlook on life. Clearly, the reality education in the West is actually not uniform and not easy to generalize.

Reality

Of the top 200 universities in the world were surveyed by Times magazine and published in November 2004, 62 universities in the U.S.. UK gets 2nd rank,followed by Germany, Australia, France, and so on. The  U.S. also ranks first seen from the maximum score obtained by campus.

Calculated from the average figure score, Switzerland occupied the highest ranking with 422 points. Seen, there is a substantial deviation from the average value to the minimum and the maximum in the U.S. or UK. By contrast, in Germany, Switzerland, or Austria deviation value is very small, which means the quality of education in these countries is relatively evenly.

Scoring given the Times magazine included an assessment from peer (expert panel), the number of faculty who "go international donor ", and the number of students from abroad (which assumed to describe the college's reputation The so enthused foreign students), the ideal ratio of the number of students perfakultas, and the number of papers they are cited in the scientific world.

Methodologically, value scores can not be compared linear fashion simply because just as a tool differentiator (differentiation), not quantification. That is, campus with a score of 1000 does not mean 10 times better than the score 100. The survey also did not specify to perbidang score studies which will surely be varied. In addition, the indicators used was inevitably more favors countries that speak English, such as U.S., UK, and Australia.

However, no matter how, it could be a mirror list that in the 21st century, higher quality education often found in the West. Of the Islamic world, the only countries included in the list only Malaysia, which represented Malaya Malaya University and Science University.

In general, it is in Indonesia alone, college graduates height of Foreign Affairs has "selling power" more better than domestic graduates. Stereotypes are often arises: LN graduates have broader horizons, has an attitude (such as discipline and work ethic) that better, and more capable to communicate in one International language. As a result, many of the children wealthy families tend to go to the school of Foreign Affairs, or to a foreign school in Indonesia.

Between Access and Quality

Actually, if you look at the above data, it appears that the quality of education depends on the amount of funds (budget). The problem is, there are funds provided by the government, there are self-help.

In countries with a large deviation scores (U.S. or English), higher education is practically manageable self. As a result, there is a very bona fide PT (with a score of 1000) such as Harvard University, the SPP is also about U.S. $ 100 000 per semester, but there is also a relatively low (score 103-although still go Top200), ie Virginia Polytechnic Institute which is subsidized by the state government. In countries with a deviation score is small (such as Germany or Austria), education height is almost entirely funded by the state.

Appears here that the system of financing education in the West is not so difficult to generalize uniform. System This depends on the dominant philosophy in it.

In countries where the socialist ideology is strong enough, the applied is the market economy (capitalist); yet on several aspects such as education, health, and infrastructure, the state still plays a major role. The system
often called "social-capitalism" or "Social-free-market". On the other hand, there countries actually implement a market economy, included in this sector, although the level varies.

In general, the education funding system in the West can divided into four types. The first type is a subsidy full so that education is absolutely free. As example, in Germany and Austria, education is free since entering elementary school to graduate degree (S3). As a result, nothing is left out because of cost issues. Schools will get the best seedlings and students not talented or intelligent inadequate will be naturally selected.

The second type is similar to the first type, only to higher education, free time is limited as only up to a certain age or a certain period of study. After that, student fee that would be the greater if delayed graduation. The country is applying such Netherlands. Of course there is also no criticism than praise on this system, because they ignore the fact that although the school was free but the cost of living is quite high, and there are those who do not have the cost of living enough so that the school should be doing, so school delay. Indeed, although free, is better able to utilizing only the upper middle class; still rare the children of farmers or laborers. Not a matter of access, but also an additional fee (for life).

The third type is the only free education financing until graduating from high school, while in college free tuition costs, although it is still subsidized.

The fourth type is a self-financed education. The trick kinds: there is by involving the community or alumni, collaboration with industry or banking (credit education), and or education as objects commercial. This example of many in America, even in Americans are also many third type of funding model.

It is this last type of education that tend to be "sold" internationally. We often see ads from college Australia, Singapore, or even American States. However, we will rarely see similar ads from Germany or Austria. Suppose there, then it can be used for: 

(1) superior recruiting scientists from Third World countries;
(2) recruit prospective agents who will promote and distribute their products in Third World countries, 
(3)get cheaper power, at least for education (PhD candidate because paying less clear rather than pay an official workers, although qualifications and the doing the same),
(4) obtain additional budget of government.

New Handle IQ and EQ

In charge of education issues, aspects of IQ (intelligence intellectual) and EQ (emotional intelligence) both worked. To vote course, we must realize that in Indonesia, the new IQ processed. Therefore, it will soon seen that the charge of education in Indonesia is lessquality.

In the West in general, the student or students are not burdened by the number of teaching materials that are too large as in Indonesia, however, they are equipped with a blade sharpening so able to find and develop their own knowledge. From childhood children are guided to be able to think logically, critically, and creative.

Emotional intelligence also developed so that the children who grown there are relatively more confident, smoothly communicate both orally and in writing, and be sensitive to environment. If people in the West are relatively more capable hygiene, diligent work, and discipline when pass-traffic, it is the fruit of the EQ education quite successful.

From the aspect ruhiah (spiritual intelligence, SQ), treatment educational institutions are not the same. In a country with levels of secularism is very high such as France, there is no religious education in public schools. Religious education only possible in private schools religious background. In a country with a still strong religious culture (such as Catholics in Austria), religious education is given in general in-school through high school. For students who are Another was given to the teachers of religious education is also co-religionists, all of which are paid by the government (including the religious teachers Islam, which is coordinated by the Austrian Islamic Society).

However, religious education is almost no effect. In the study James H. Leuba (esteemed psychologist America) Th. 1914: 58% of American scientists in 1000 selected randomly does not believe in a God. 1934
the number rose to 67%. Edward J. Larson (Prof. of Law & History-University of Georgia, USA and winner of the Pulitzer 1998) to further examine the top scientists member National Academy of Science. On the question, "Is believe in the existence of God, "no answer as follows:

Secularism Marketer

Appears here that the secular-liberal culture remains more impressive compared to religious education in schools that only a few hours a week. Issues such as promiscuity, drugs, and crime in the schools there everywhere. On the other hand, the view of Islam, the people, and its history of bias encountered in almost all all subjects (study Susanne Heine: Islam Zwischen Selbstbild und Klische, Wien, 1995).

Secular worldview and behavior-which do not have to go through indoctrination or school-is a means of maintaining the existing system in the West (ie for students their own), and also export it to the rest of the world through strangers who attend school in the West. The foreign students will be expected to be "marketer" Western nations on hospitality, product reliability West, and the progress of Western perspective.

In the case of scholarships for humanities, the view This will be embedded in the secular scientific principles that studied. Scholarship recipients from developing countries for many years, even after graduation, it is expected producing papers on a variety of things seen from the capitalist point of view.

On scholarship for the sciences and technology, the special conditioning is no secularism in campus. However, the reality of Western life itself is way "propaganda" that was best about secularism few Muslim students who concluded that the system in West paced more "Islamic" than in Islamic countries itself.

With these people, imperialism can be continued. Advantages of science and technology will be used as a tool imperialism, for example through foreign debt or dependence LN product, and it is often through real children people Islam itself.

Conclusion

Education in the West in general are now more advanced than in the lands of Islam, which is not implement the Islamic system. In financing, found that when the full state funding of education, going on equity of access, quality also. However, the lack of ruhiah touch, especially Islam, making graduates tend to be atheist and ter-dehumanization. They will be tool secularism and imperialism. ?

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