Multiple Intellegence (MI), Intellegence Quotient (IQ) and Character Education

Multiple IntelligencesMultiple intelligence was first introduced by Howard Gardner in his book titled Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. When first published in 1985, Howard Gardner, Harvard University professor, explains in his book that the seven types of intelligence, is to facilitate the abbreviated SLIM BIL, namely (1) spatial-space, (2) linguistic, (3) interpersonal, (4 ) music, (5) bodily-kinesthetic, (6) intrapersonal, and (7) logical-mathematical. Subsequent developments, the seven types of intelligence, because the development of social culture, can be divided into eight intelligences and then to nine of intelligence, namely (8) naturalist, and (9) an existentialist.

Intellectual Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual IntelligenceSubsequent developments, multiple intelligences can be divided into four intelligence, namely (1) intelligence, (2) emotional intelligence, and (3) spiritual intelligence. Overall intelligence is then known as a comprehensive intelligence, which is not only concerned with one of the all types of intelligence, but looking at the overall intelligence as a single entity that can not be separated. This comprehensive intelligence has formulated a vision of the Ministry of National Education.

During this time, the intelligence has to gauge is standard tests called intelligence quotient (IQ), the comparison between the intelligence of a person with intelligence by age. Figures show the results of the comparison level intellectual person, whether it includes an idiot or a genius.

By following the concept of IQ to the intellectual, the emotional intelligence, social, and spiritual well developed model of Emotional Quotient (EQ) and Spiritual Quotient (SQ), as developed by Daniel Goleman in his book titled "Emotional Intelligence", published in , 1995. However, it should be recognized that compared to IQ tests that have been developed, the actual EQ and SQ tests have not yet fully standardized tests as IQ. In short, the test EQ and SQ tests have not actually exist. Daniel Goleman who has developed is a realm or domain analysis of emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual intelligence (SI). For example, Daniel Goleman states that Emotional Intelligence (EI) memiliti 5 (five) domains as follows:
  •     Knowing your emotions;
  •     Managing your own emotions;
  •     Motivating yourself;
  •     Recognizing and understanding other people's emotions;
  •     Managing relationships, ie., Managing the emotions of others.

Based on the above description, it can be said that for Emotional Intelligence EQ (Emotional Intelligence) and SQ for Spiritual Intelligence (Spiritual Intelligence) actually does not exist, or has not developed as contained in IQ for Intellectual Intelligence (Intellectual Intelligence)

Factors Influencing Success in Life There is no single factor that determines the success of 100% to someone in life. Therefore, a person's IQ would not be 100% able to determine a person's success in life. All factors will affect the success of one's life. Only God Almighty Kuasalah that be the only factor that can determine the success of a person. Another factor that can influence only, and in no way define, including IQ, emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence one.

Daniel Goleman's assertion that states that 20% of success in life is determined by the human IQ and the rest (80%) is determined by the emotional and spiritual intelligence is more an academic conclusion has no scientific validity, but there should be a review of the factual operations further.

In this case, the authors agree with his opinion that "success requires more than IQ (intelligence quotient), roomates has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioral and character elements" Meaning, one's success is not solely determined by IQ test results, such as IQ tests tend not or less taking into account aspects related to the behavior and character. IQ tests are intended to measure intelligence is alone. Therefore, to measure another type of intelligence, we should develop other tests. 
Ideally, all types of intelligences according to Howard Gardner require its own measurement tools. This is the challenge for the future measurement experts in their respective fields of expertise, including the measurement of student learning outcomes (student achievement) If related to IQ tests and tests between the UN, then they are different in terms of its purpose. Is the second test also determines one's success in life? Both can be a predictor, ie, to predict the success a person in life, which of course with different levels of prediction. For this, it needs a long research to determine which tests that have the highest level of prediction.

Development tests whatever name, is indeed a conscious and deliberate effort to predict early human intelligence in the broad sense, not just intellectual intelligence by Howard Gardner's concept, and in turn can be used to predict the impact on the ocean of success in life .

The same thing, also the development of education, or also to the implementation of the character education program now being promoted back to recover (recovery) of the nation. Let us quote the sense of education and character education as follows:

"Education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual strength of religious, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and skills needed him, society, nation and state"Moderate understanding of character education by Thomas Lickona also has tone and more or less the same meaning, ie, as a conscious and planned effort, as follows: "Character education is the deliberate effort to cultivate virtue - that is Objectively good human qualities that are good for the individual person and good for the whole society ". Can be freely translated that "character education is a conscious effort to cultivate virtue, namely that objectively as a complete human being, either for life or for the individual and society as a whole".

Final WordsDiscussion and study at length about multiple intelligence (MI), intelligence quotient (IQ), even about character education is appropriate until the level of understanding of the concept as though the thought process. However, it all is not enough. The process should bring awareness to us that the development of the concept is a virtue that can enlighten our hearts and appreciation, to be developed further into operational programs and activities that we should apply and implement.

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