History of Higher Education in Indonesia

Colleges today have reached an established form and complete as a university, with the pillars of academic freedom and freedom of the pulpit of academic, scientific and management autonomy, has had a very long history.

Embryo has emerged in Europe since about 400 BC, philosopher Plato initiated by the Park Academosnya in ancient Greek era. So it has been over 2000 years.

In Indonesia, this history has not been too long. When the University of Gajah Mada (UGM, established on December 19, 1949) in Yogyakarta and Universitas Indonesia (UI, established February 2, 1950) in Jakarta is considered as the oldest college, then this new record are decades old, even though the embryo UI has been around since STOVIA ( Tot School Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen) in Batavia in the 1900s.

In 1870, the Dutch government imposed the so-called Etische Politiek in the Dutch East Indies, which is a change in the attitude of the Dutch toward the colonies because they feel indebted to earth son who has led the Netherlands to build and prosper. It is driven by liberalism that swept Europe with the motto liberty, egality, and fraternity are based on humanism.

Educatie program, irigatie, and emigratie are intended to increase the participation of the son of earth (more colonies produced / productive) that originally gave rise to the school just to learn to read, write, and calculate. To handle modern factories and plantations, the Dutch felt the need to open a high school which later became the forerunner of the development of the faculties in Jakarta.

Starting from the health sector, in 1902 founded STOVIA (School Tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen) which later became the NIAS (Nerderlandsch Indische Artsen School) in 1913 and GHS (Geneeskundige Hoge School) as embryos medical school. Then followed the 1922 establishment of the Rechts School and became Rechthoogen School in 1924 as the Faculty of Law, University of Indonesia embryo. Founded in 1940 in Jakarta Facultiet de Letterenen Wijsbegeste which later became the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy, University of Indonesia.

In 1920 Bandung established Technische Hoge School (THS) which was also used in public universities. While in Bogor also Landsbouwkundige Facultiet established in 1941 which is now called the Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB).

Two days after the proclamation, dated August 19, 1945, the Indonesian government established the Indonesian Institute of Higher Education, which led to the founding of the University of Indonesia which is basically a combination of the faculties that have been there before.

Meanwhile in the struggle against the Dutch who want to re-colonize Indonesia, Government of Indonesia in Yogyakarta in cooperation with the Foundation College Hall of Gajah Mada on December 19, 1949 also established the University of Gajah Mada. At first the Faculty of Law and Literature housed at the show and then gradually move to campus Bulak wells.

In other words, capital founding of the university or college is the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia and Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta. Then from these two universities developed into five with the presence of Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB-1959), Bogor Agricultural University (IPB-1963), and the University of Airlangga (Airlangga-1954), each of which stands alone.

For private universities, Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII) in Yogyakarta that was built in 1948 is the first private university and the oldest in Indonesia.

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