Adult Education (AE) is all about being everywhere and nowhere. All around the sense that for many grown ups learning is really much a part of living where we learn to do things. Nowhere meaning that for many grown ups learning does not count unless of course maybe it was completed in a class or formal method of education. When purposeful and planned activities are associated with grown ups student, the idea of adult education becomes obvious. Knowles (1980) referred to AE as some organized activities transported on by wide selection of institutions for successfully achieving specific educational objectives.
-Non-formal Education- is commonly used worldwide to consult organized learning activities that occur outdoors the -Formal Education System-. Activities serve several clientele for example NGO's, Community Based Learning, Private Organization in informal configurations. -Training- strongly connected with learning in place of work by mentioning to any or all training courses, workshops, classes as well as on Job Training made to improve a person's work related performance
What Purpose Will It Serve?
The general goals and reasons of grown ups education are formed through the historic, cultural and social conditions contained in the context and theses reasons change with time. Even though the reasons of grown ups education by context varies worldwide but you will find some goals which are commons to many nations. Titmus (1989) has recognized four goals which are generally used:
1. Second chance education, that provides grown ups who skipped it the type of education accessible within the initial education system. This might vary from fundamental literacy to mature entrance to college
2. Role education, that is education for social function (outdoors employment) and includes social role education (as citizen person in a connection) and private role education (as parent, spouse, upon the market person)
3. Vocational education, that's education within the abilities and understanding needed in employment (for example IKBN, JTM etc.) and
4. Personal Enrichment Education or education meant to get the individual without regard to their social or economic function which neither includes, essentially, anything nor taught in other titles.
In Malaysia context, the majority of the adult education programmes completed are vocationally oriented planning a student for any which you may or perhaps a job and job enrichment (Mazanah and Norhayati, 1997).
Challenges in Adult Learning
1. The structural obstacles to limit access are formidable indeed, for example socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, age, gender and geography all conspire to limit grown ups ease of access to learning.
2. In certain nations, rural and isolated folk, women, unprivileged, lesser people and older grown ups are helplessly underrepresented in most types of adult and ongoing education.
3. National guidelines in certain nations were insufficient coordination among services companies. Even sometimes there can be an overlap and duplication of efforts by all relevant parties for example government, private, NGO's and worldwide gamers.
In Malaysia context, AE describes learning possibilities carried out by grown ups seeking education outdoors the formal schooling system (Mazanah & Hayati, 1997) Formal schooling began from year 1 (Standard 1) till year 11 (SPM). AE includes both formal education beyond year 11 (until SPM) and also the non formal system.
The formal system describes educational activity in an institution of greater learning that results in a recognized certificate diploma, degree, masters as well as doctoral. Whereas non formal education is understood to be any organized educational activity outdoors the established formal education system that's meant to serve identifiable clienteles and particular learning objectives. Such educational activity isn't accredited.