Scientific Approach in Learning Process

Approach in applying scientific / scholarly in the learning process is not unusual and nonsensical, but that's exactly what should happen in the learning process, because the real learning itself is a scientific process (science).

Many experts believe that through a scientific approach / scientific, in addition to making students more active in constructing knowledge and skills, can also encourage students to undertake an investigation to discover the facts of a phenomenon or event. That is, in the learning process, students dibelajarkan and accustomed to finding scientific truth, not invited to slander opinionated especially in view of a phenomenon. They are trained to be able to think logically and systematically trace, using higher level thinking capacity (High Order thingking / HOT). Combie White (1997) in his book entitled "Curriculum Innovation; A Celebration of Classroom Practice" has reminded us of the importance membelajarkan students about the facts. "Nothing is more important than facts," as he said.

Application of scientific approaches / scientific learning require changes in their own settings and different forms of learning with conventional learning. Several learning methods considered in line with the principles of the scientific approach / scientific, among other methods: (1) Problem Based Learning, (2) Project Based Learning, (3) Inquiry / Social Inquiry, and (4) Group Investigation. These methods attempt membelajarkan students to recognize a problem, formulate a problem, find a solution or an answer test while on a problem / question with an investigation (finding the facts through sensing), could ultimately draw conclusions and present it orally and in writing.

Is scientific approach / scientific measures as described above can be applied at all levels of education? The answer of course would be a scientific debate, but I hold the theory that we already know the Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget who said that from age 11 to adult (formal-operational stage), an individual has the ability to coordinate either simultaneously or sequentially two range of cognitive abilities, namely: (1) capacity using hypothetical; ability to think about anything in particular in terms of solving the problem by using the basic assumptions that are relevant to her surroundings response, and (2) capacity to use abstract principles; ability to study materials abstract subjects are broad and deep.

Thus, it seems that the scientific approach / scientific in learning is very likely to be given from the age of this stage. Of course, it should be done gradually, starting from the hypothesis and the use of a simple abstract thinking, then along with the development berfikirnya capabilities can be enhanced by using hypothetical and abstract thinking are more complex.

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